Providing access to clean drinking water is a complicated and multifaceted issue; choosing the
appropriate technology is just one aspect of a project. Things like user education, teaching proper
hygiene practices, and monitoring are also extremely important and need to be taken into
Providing clean water is complicated partly because water contamination can occur in many ways and can happen at almost any stage of the water collection process. Some common ways that water can be contaminated are: improper human waste disposal (inadequate sanitation facilities), poor hygiene (not washing hands), livestock feces (this is particularly true if water is collected from an unprotected river or stream), agricultural runoff, and industrial waste. These are just a few ways water can become contaminated.
In many areas, drinking water is collected from open lakes, streams, or ponds where contamination can be very high. In other places, people retrieve their drinking water from a community well or borehole. The water being pumped may or may not be clean. Even if it is clean, there are many opportunities for recontamination, particularly if it is not stored in a safe storage container.
Because there are many ways water can become contaminated, even if the water collected is clean, OHorizons has focused our efforts on the BSF, which is a point of use technology. As suggested by the name, a point of use water technology treats the water where it is used, typically in the household. This allows users maximum control over the treatment of their water and reduces the chances of recontamination.
BioSand Filters (BSFs) use sand, gravel, and natural biological processes to filter out contaminants in water, making it safe for drinking. BSFs effectively eliminate cholera, typhoid, E coli, amoebic dysentery, and many additional pathogens that are harmful to humans. They’re a great low-tech drinking water solution.
- Very effective at removing bacteria, protozoa, and helminths (parasitic worms) from water, and at reducing turbidity
- Made with 100% locally available materials (unlike larger community based systems where foreign parts typically need to be imported)
- Very durable, can last more than 15 years (if maintained properly)
- Labor intensive NOT capital intensive to manufacture
- No electricity or running parts required to operate the filter
- Little maintenance required
What Kind of Water Can be Used?
- We can use any kind of water in the BSF: water from the river, from a pond, from a well, or rainwater. Use the best quality water you can in the filter. The water should be the cleanest available since the filter is not able to remove 100% of the pathogens and turbidity (dirtiness or cloudiness). If the source water is very contaminated, the filtered water may still have some contaminants.
- Use clear water. The turbidity of the source water is also a key factor in the operation of the filter. Higher turbidity levels will plug the filtration sand layer more quickly. In this case, the user will need to do maintenance (a process called Swirl and Dump) more often to maintain a convenient flow rate. If the source water is over 50 NTU, it is recommended to use a sedimentation method before pouring the water into the filter. A simple test to measure the turbidity is to use a 2 liter clear, plastic bottle filled with the source water. Place this on top of a paper with large letters on it. If we can see the letters looking down through the top of the bottle, the water probably has a turbidity of less than 50 NTU.
- Do not pour water that has been chlorinated into the filter. The chlorine will kill the biolayer.
This technology of water purification is great and it can help us to purify a large quantity of polluted water in a Eco-Friendly manner. It is been widely used in ruler areas for the purification of water. It has a nice future to.
Source :- ohorizons.org